Document Type

Master's Culminating Experience

Publication Date



Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine what impact demographic characteristics and the smoking status of mothers had on the prevalence and risk for LBW births. Methods: Birth certificate data from Montgomery County, Ohio from 2006-2009 was analyzed. Among the information collected were the infant's birth weight, the mother's age, marital status, education level, race, payer status at time of delivery, WIC status, and smoking status. The impact demographic characteristics and smoking status had on the prevalence of LBW births was determined by a logistic regression model. The effect of when women smoked during pregnancy had on the birth weight of the infant was determined using a one-way ANOVA analysis. Results: Women who were significantly at risk for having a LBW infant were age 35 and over (OR: 1.60), not married (OR: 1.31), had a high school or less level of education (OR: 1.57), black (OR: 1.83), not on WIC (OR: 1.35), on Medicaid (OR: 1.21), or self paid (OR: 1.37). Women who smoked during pregnancy also had a significant risk for having LBW infants and the risk increased with the amount of cigarettes smoked: 1-10 cigarettes/day (OR: 1.64), ll-20 cigarettes/day (OR: 1.92), and> 20 cigarettes/day (OR: 2.31). For women who quit smoking prior to pregnancy or who quit during the 1st trimester there were no significant changes in infant birth weights compared to the non-smokers. However, mean infant birth weight significantly changes for women who quit smoking during the second trimester or women who continue to smoke through the third trimester compared to nonsmokers and women who quit prior to pregnancy.

Conclusion: Since smoking during pregnancy increased a woman's risk for having a LBW infant, it should be recommended that pregnant women who smoke be provided with information of these risks and support to quit smoking.