Master's Culminating Experience
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global infectious disease often associated with HIV. Study of the distribution and epidemiologic trends may help target prevention and control measures towards high risk areas and groups.
Objective: To determine TB trends in four counties in Ohio, i.e. Franklin, Cuyahoga, Hamilton and Montgomery counties, and to explore differences in distribution of cases across gender, age groups and races.
Methods: TB surveillance data was collected from the Ohio Department of Health website for 12 years (1999-2011). Mean TB rates across gender were compared using the two sample t-test. One way ANOVA was used to compare means across three age categories (< 15 years, 15-64 years,> 64 years) and races (Asians, Whites, and African Americans). To present trends in TB rates over 12 years, data were plotted by gender, age, and race across the four counties.
Results: TB case rates were significantly different across gender, with rates in males almost twice as high as compared to females (p-value < 0.009). TB rates were significantly higher in the 15-64 and > 65 age groups than in the < 15 years age group (p < 0.01). Asians had the highest number of TB case rates as compared to other races (p-value < 0.01). TB trends in Ohio over the past decade indicate that the incidence is declining over time.
Conclusion: TB rates differed significantly across gender, age, and race, decreasing over time. High risk target populations for TB control are males, people > 65 years, and Asians.
Vayuvegula, U. B. (2012). Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Ohio. Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.