Optimization of Anti-Pseudomonal Antibiotics for Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Exacerbations: V. Aminoglycosides

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Intravenous (IV) anti‐pseudomonal aminoglycosides (i.e., amikacin and tobramycin) have been shown to be tolerable and effective in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations (APEs) in both pediatric and adult patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence‐based summary of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, tolerability, and efficacy studies utilizing IV amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin in the treatment of APE and to highlight areas where further investigation is needed. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Pulmonary Guidelines recommend that once‐daily administration of aminoglycosides is preferred over three times per day in the treatment of an APE. The literature supports dosing ranges for amikacin and tobramycin of 30–35 and 7–15 mg/kg/day, respectively, given once daily, with subsequent doses determined by therapeutic drug concentration monitoring. The literature does not support the routine use of gentamicin in the treatment of APE due to a lack of studies showing efficacy and evidence indicating an increased risk of nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dosing strategy of amikacin in the treatment of an APE, and to further identify risk factors and determinants that influence the development of P. aeruginosa resistance with once‐daily administration of tobramycin. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:1047–1061. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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