50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: The Surgical Management of Meningoceles and Meningomyeloceles
Compared with physicians 50 years ago, today's readers of The Journal are far more familiar with survivors of myelomeningocele. Infants born with open neural tube defects were more common then, but the overwhelming majority were left to die within several months from meningitis, hydrocephalus, or renal failure. Surgical repair was seldom undertaken until the advent of sac closure and hydrocephalus shunting in the 1950s and 1960s.
Lober, R. M.,
& Fisher, P. G.
(2012). 50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: The Surgical Management of Meningoceles and Meningomyeloceles. The Journal of Pediatrics (4), 734.