The Fantastic Four: A Plug ‘N’ Play Set of Optimal Control Pulses for Enhancing NMN Spectroscopy
We present highly robust, optimal control-based shaped pulses designed to replace all 90° and 180° hard pulses in a given pulse sequence for improved performance. Special attention was devoted to ensuring that the pulses can be simply substituted in a one-to-one fashion for the original hard pulses without any additional modification of the existing sequence. The set of four pulses for each nucleus therefore consists of 90° and 180° point-to-point (PP) and universal rotation (UR) pulses of identical duration. These 1 ms pulses provide uniform performance over resonance offsets of 20 kHz (1H) and 35 kHz (13C) and tolerate reasonably large radio frequency (RF) inhomogeneity/miscalibration of ±15% (1H) and ±10% (13C), making them especially suitable for NMR of small-to-medium-sized molecules (for which relaxation effects during the pulse are negligible) at an accessible and widely utilized spectrometer field strength of 600 MHz. The experimental performance of conventional hard-pulse sequences is shown to be greatly improved by incorporating the new pulses, each set referred to as the Fantastic Four (Fanta4).
Skinner, T. E.,
Neves, J. L.,
Gershenzon, N. I.,
& Glaser, S. J.
(2013). The Fantastic Four: A Plug ‘N’ Play Set of Optimal Control Pulses for Enhancing NMN Spectroscopy. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 228, 16-31.