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Deep level transient spectroscopy, current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage measurements are used to study interface traps in metal-on-bulk-ZnO Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). c-axis-oriented ZnO samples were cut from two different vapor-phase-grown crystals, and Au- and Pd-SBDs were formed on their (0001) surfaces after remote oxygen-plasma treatment. As compared to Au-SBDs, the Pd-SBDs demonstrated higher reverse-bias leakage current and forward-bias current evidently due to higher carrier concentrations, which might have been caused by hydrogen in-diffusion through the thin Pd metal. The dominant traps included the well-known bulk traps E3 (0.27 eV) and E4 (0.49 eV). In addition, a surface-related trap, Es (0.49 eV), is observed but only in the Pd-SBDs, not in the Au-SBDs. Trap Es is located at depths less than about 95 nm and shows an electron capture behavior indicative of extended defects. A possible correspondence between trap Es and the well-known 2.45 eV green band is suggested by depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on the same samples, which reveals an increase in the intensity of this band within ∼ 100 nm of the Pd/ZnO interface.


Copyright © 2008, American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in the Journal of Applied Physics 104.6, and may be found at



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