Extremely High Hole Concentrations in C-Plane GaN
Metal Modulated Epitaxy (S. D. Burnham et al., J. Appl. Phys. 104, 024902 (2008) ) is extended to include modulation of both the shutters of Ga and Mg, the Mg being delivered from a Veeco corrosive series valved cracker (S. D. Burnham et al., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 798, Y8.11 (2003) ). The Ga fluxes used are sufficiently large that droplets rapidly form when the Ga shutter opens and are subsequently depleted when the Ga shutter closes. The result is the ability to limit surface faceting while predominantly growing under average N-rich growth conditions and thus, possibly reduce N-vacancy defects. N-vacancy defects are known to result in compensation. This ability to grow higher quality materials under N-rich conditions results in very high hole concentrations and low resistivity p-type materials. Hole concentrations as high as 2×1019 cm–3 have been achieved on c-plane GaN resulting in resistivities as low as 0.38 ohm-cm. The dependence on Ga flux, shutter timing, the corresponding RHEED images for each condition is detailed and clearly show minimization of faceting and crystal quality variations as determined by X-ray diffraction. Quantification of the Mg incorporation and residual impurities such as hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon by SIMS, eliminates co-doping, while temperature dependent hall measurements show reduced activation energies. X-ray diffraction data compares crystalline quality with hole concentration. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Doolittle, W. A.,
& Look, D. C.
(2009). Extremely High Hole Concentrations in C-Plane GaN. physica status solidi (c), 6 (Supplement 2), S788-S791.