Dopant Profiles in Heavily Doped ZnO
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to compare the composition as a function of depth of as-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) films heavily doped with Ga and similar samples annealed in air for 10 min at 600°C, with particular attention given to the near-surface region. Films are grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a ZnO target containing 3 wt% Ga2O3. Electrical properties of these samples are determined from temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements. The as-grown film has the following characteristics: (1) ∼1∶1 Zn:O ratio with a Ga concentration of ∼3.3 at %; (2) no excess Ga in the near-surface region; and (3) excellent electrical characteristics: ρ=2.42×10−4 Ω-cm, n=8.05×1020 cm−3, and μ=32.1 cm2/V-s-s at 300 K. For the annealed sample: (1) the Zn:O ratio remains ∼1∶1, but the Ga concentration is ∼3 at %, which is ∼10% lower than in the as-grown film; (2) ∼7 at % Ga is measured in the near-surface region; and (3) a significant increase in resistivity to ρ=0.99 Ω-cm, n=1.97×1018 cm−3, and μ=3.2 cm2/V-s at 300 K. Analysis of the O chemical shift suggests formation of a mixed ZnO/Ga2O3 surface layer ≤5-nm-thick accounts for the observed changes in the Ga profile after annealing.
Leedy, K. D.,
& Look, D. C.
(2013). Dopant Profiles in Heavily Doped ZnO. Optical Engineering, 52 (5), 053801.