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Clear descriptions of job expertise are required to support applications and improvements in personnel training and job performance. This report describes a practical approach to task analysis that integrates the issues, content, and methods of cognitive science and personnel psychology. Cognitively oriented task analysis employs a breadth, then depth, strategy for identifying job expertise. Starting with a task-by-knowledge framework, job expertise is successively elaborated using interviews, expert ratings, and protocol analyses. The application of task analysis results to the development of written performance measures is described to illustrate the contributions of this approach to measurement validity. Task analysis results show that much of what has been missing in using existing task analysis methods is the mental aspects of performance related to interactions among task dimensions, task characteristics, and contexts. Two appendixes provide an example of knowledge elicitation and representation and item writing guidelines for performance measures.

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