NPC-EXs Alleviate Endothelial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction through the miR-210 Downstream Nox2 and VEGFR2 Pathways

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We have demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) protect endothelial cells (ECs) from oxidative stress. Since exosomes (EXs) can convey the benefit of parent cells through their carried microRNAs (miRs) and miR-210 is ubiquitously expressed with versatile functions, we investigated the role of miR-210 in the effects of NPC-EXs on oxidative stress and dysfunction in ECs. NPCs were transfected with control and miR-210 scramble/inhibitor/mimic to generate NPC-EXscon, NPC-EXssc, NPC-EXsanti-miR-210, and NPC-EXsmiR-210. The effects of various NPC-EXs on angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, apoptosis, and dysfunction, as well as dysregulation of Nox2, ephrin A3, VEGF, and p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 in ECs were evaluated. Results showed (1) Ang II-induced ROS overproduction, increase in apoptosis, and decrease in tube formation ability, accompanied with Nox2 upregulation and reduction of p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 in ECs. (2) Compared to NPC-EXscon or NPC-EXssc, NPC-EXsanti-miR-210 were less whereas NPC-EXsmiR-210 were more effective on attenuating these detrimental effects induced by Ang II in ECs. (3) These effects of NPC-EXsanti-miR-210 and NPC-EXsmiR-210 were associated with the changes of miR-210, ephrin A3, VEGF, and p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 ratio in ECs. Altogether, the protective effects of NPC-EXs on Ang II-induced endothelial injury through miR-210 which controls Nox2/ROS and VEGF/VEGFR2 signals were studied.