Exosome and MiRNA in Stroke

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Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Various types of stem cells have been applied to treat stroke and have been shown promising potential. The principal mechanism of therapeutic action has been partially ascribed to their strong paracrine capacity. Exosomes are small vesicles released from all kinds of cells and mediate intercellular communication by transferring exosomal protein and microRNA (miRNA) cargoes between cells in the brain. Among these cargoes, miRNAs play a key role in mediating biological function due to their prominent roles in gene regulation. Emerging data suggest that stem cell-released exosomes have advantages over stem cells to treat stroke, because exosomes could cross the blood bran barrier and easily to be modified and handled. Here, we first review the biogenesis, cargoes, and detection of exosomes. Then, we discussed the role of miRNAs in stroke. At last, we highlight the use of stem cell-released exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in stroke. Perspectives on the developing role of stem cell-released exosomes mediated transfer of miRNAs as a therapeutic approach will also be discussed.


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