Academic Procrastination and Self-Handicapping: Gender Differences in Response to Noncontingent Feedback
The use of academic procrastination as a self-handicapping strategy was investigated. One hundred and eighty participants completed a solvable or insolvable form of an "intelligence test." Participants were provided bogus feedback indicating they had either successfully completed the insolvable form of the test (noncontingent success) or the solvable form of the test (contingent success), or that they had failed the insolvable form of the test (noncontingent failure). Participants were then told there would be a subsequent test and that it either was or was not functional to procrastinate as it would or would not (respectively) improve their score if they procrastinated before returning for the "actual test." No evidence for the use of academic procrastination as a self-handicapping strategy was found. However, there were gender differences related to functionality instructions and type of feedback.
Meyer, C. L.
(2000). Academic Procrastination and Self-Handicapping: Gender Differences in Response to Noncontingent Feedback. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15 (5), 87-102.