James Runkle (Advisor)
Master of Science (MS)
The acute toxicity and immunotoxicity of JP-8 jet fuel on Chironomus tentans, Hyallela azteca, Lactuca sativa, Eisenia foetida, and Lumbricus terrestris was assessed using standard USEPA acute toxicity and static renewal toxicity tests. Three methods of spiking test soil with jet fuel were evaluated. In one method acetone was utilized as a carrier and the soil was dried in the fume hood; in another the soil was spiked directly with jet fuel and also was dried; and in the last the soil was spiked directly without drying. There was low survival in C. tentans in all treatments, including controls. There was significant mortality at 1500 ppm (AD soil) for H. azteca. Lettuce seed germination did not show any dose response. In contrast, there was a decreasing trend for lettuce root length in response to increasing JP-8 concentrations. We predicted lower mortality in worms exposed to soil treatments that were dried in the fume hood due to the loss of volatile toxic components. Nominal doses of jet fuel ranged from 0 ppm to 2000 ppm JP- 8. Mortality was assessed on day 14. Although mortality varied among three experiments, soil that was spiked directly and not dried showed the highest levels of mortality when compared to soil treatments that were dried. Doses from 0 ppm to 750 ppm had low to moderate mortality (0-25%), while doses from 1000 ppm to 2000 ppm had high mortality (30-100%) for the no carrier/no drying soil treatment. Both soil treatments that were dried generally showed low mortality (0-15%), with the exception of the acetone carrier soil treatment in experiment 1 (which showed moderate to high mortality) 30% at 1500 ppm and 85% at 2000 ppm. To test immunotoxicity, coelomocyte counts were performed for controls and survivors of the acute toxicity test. There was a decreasing trend in immune endpoints (total cells, % viability, and total viable cells) as the jet fuel doses increased for the no carrier/no drying soil treatment when survivors of the 1000 ppm - 2000 ppm dose ranges were available for testing in experiments 1 and 2. Overall, high doses (1000-2000 ppm) of JP-8 produced mortality and immunotoxicity in redworms.
Department or Program
Department of Biological Sciences
Year Degree Awarded
Copyright 2007, all rights reserved. This open access ETD is published by Wright State University and OhioLINK.