Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Joy Gockel (Committee Member), Nathan Klingbeil (Advisor), Raghavan Srinivasan (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MSME)


One of the greatest challenges in additive manufacturing is fabricating titanium structures with consistent and desirable microstructure. To date, fully columnar deposits have been achieved through direct control of process variables. However, the introduction of external factors appears necessary to achieve fully equiaxed grain morphology using existing commercial processes. This work introduces and employs an analytic model to relate process variables to solidification thermal conditions and expected beta grain morphology at the surface of and at the deepest point in the melt pool. The latter is required in order to ensure the deposited microstructure is maintained even after the deposition of subsequent layers and, thus, the possibility of equiaxed microstructure throughout. By exploring the impact of process variables on thermal, morphological, and geometric trends at the deepest point in the melt pool, this work evaluates four commercial processes, estimates the range of process variables capable of producing fully equiaxed microstructure, and considers the expected size of the resultant equiaxed melt pool.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Year Degree Awarded