Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Kevin Bennett (Committee Chair), Winston Bennett (Committee Member), Gary Burns (Committee Member), John Flach (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


The Air Force (AF) has traditionally utilized a frequency-based approach that relies on after-action review for feedback to train their pilots. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of adding real-time adaptive supplemental feedback to this approach. A synthetic task environment was developed to emulate the current AF training platform. Supplemental HUD displays were developed that captured various degrees of expertise at the flight task, thereby serving as a both training and performance aids. Varied presentation schedules for these supplemental displays and triggers for their dynamic behavior were compared and evaluated based on performance, knowledge and workload improvements as well as ocular search patterns that reflect expert performance. All groups showed significant improvement in flight control error, workload and knowledge between the first and the second benchmark blocks (performed with just standard HUD). There were no significant differences in performance between training conditions performed with different supplemental HUD displays in the first and second benchmark blocks. However, different supplemental HUD displays produced significantly different performance for workload and flight control error during the training blocks. Overall workload, frustration and perceived performance also showed significant improvements during training for supplemental HUD displays that reflected higher levels of expertise. Results lend further support to the efficacy of simulation based training and the ability for real-time feedback to improve perceptions of training. Future research will focus on increasing training time and delay between training as well as more concise feedback displays.

Page Count


Department or Program

Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD

Year Degree Awarded


Included in

Engineering Commons