Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Nathan Bowling (Advisor), Gary Burns (Committee Member), David LaHuis (Committee Member), Joseph Houpt (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Careless responding (CR) can negatively affect the quality of self-report data and thus the resulting conclusions researchers draw from the data. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether interactive warnings, which alert careless respondents in real time, reduce CR more than traditional, non-interactive warnings. I used a 4 x 4 mixed factorial design to examine these relationships. The between group factor was the type of warning used, which consisted of four levels (i.e., a control, no warning group, a traditional, non-interactive warning, an interactive threatening warning message, and an interactive encouraging message), and the within person factor consisted of CR measurements across four questionnaire sections. The results showed that the interactive consequence message failed to reduce CR scores compared to a traditional warning message. Implications for these findings include the general ineffectiveness of techniques based on motivational theories to deter CR. Future research should continue investigating different CR prevention techniques.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Psychology

Year Degree Awarded