Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Debra Steele-Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Nathan Bowling, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Corey Miller, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


When employees are dissatisfied, they can choose a destructive solution such as quitting, or they can use voice to effect organizational change. A sample of 277 full-time employees in the United States responded to an online survey of voice, ethical leadership, core self-evaluation, proactive personality, affective commitment, and several control variables. Results from simple, multiple, and hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethical leadership, core self-evaluation, and proactive personality have positive relationships with voice. In addition, ethical leadership facilitates voice through the path of affective commitment. Proactive personality compensates for low levels of affective commitment. Thus, managers can increase voice among employees lower in proactive personality by increasing affective commitment. Increasing perceived, actual, or awareness of ethical leadership could increase voice among employees with a wider range of scores on proactive personality.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Psychology

Year Degree Awarded