Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Carlos Costa, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Vaughn Shannon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); December Green, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


A great deal of research focuses on the question of why incumbents invite IEOs but do not explicitly explored the root cause of why cheating in elections occurs despite the presence of IEOs. The occurrence when incumbents in young democracies invite international election observers (IEOs) and nevertheless cheat in elections has not been fully explored. This research advances the following expectation: incumbents seeking international benefits and whose electoral institutions are not fully mature are more likely to invite IEOs and cheat in an election. This is due to the ability of the incumbents who are seeking for the reelection to change electoral rules so as to be reelected, be able to influence the national electoral board to act in a partisan way, ability to manipulate voter registration , and lastly, the ability of the incumbents to maneuver with the IEOs activities .The findings of this research has open a door for researchers to look at the problem of election manipulation from a different angle. Furthermore, it will help IEOs and NGOs trying to promote democracy have a better understanding of the context in young-democracies.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Political Science

Year Degree Awarded


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.