Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Steven Higgins, Ph.D. (Advisor); David Dolson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ioana Pavel, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


There have been limited studies on the analysis of the nucleation and precipitation behind calcium fluoride. Earlier studies support a nucleation mechanism in agreement to classical nucleation theory (CNT) in which a surface nucleation mechanism is required for calcium fluoride. This experiment devised using the ISE method to calcium fluoride to find evidence of a nucleation mechanism like that of calcium carbonate (prenucleation cluster pathway). The potential and pH were recorded versus time and the potential data was converted to nCa2+ data of free calcium ions. It was determined that there was evidence of a similar nucleation mechanism for calcium fluoride due to a similar nCa2+ curve being produced. It was also proven that ion pairing of the reaction cell was not a major factor to our experiments by calculations and analysis. The formation constants, Kip, for CaF+ were found to be 3800% higher than the literature value. This experiment indicates that a similar mechanism can occur for calcium fluoride, but further analysis is needed to confirm this.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Chemistry

Year Degree Awarded


Included in

Chemistry Commons