Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Charles Ciampaglio (Committee Chair), David Dominic (Committee Member), David Schmidt (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


A phosphatic bone-bed occurs along Clapp Creek in Kingstree, South Carolina, within the east-central portion of the coastal plain. The location of the research site is within the Chicora Member of the Williamsburg Formation. The paleoenvironment of this site was most likely a complex estuary with microenvironments that included tidal channels, tidal deltas, tidal flats, marshes and subtidal bays. The high diversity and large time span in the bone-bed is explained by the transgressive environment and storm deposits. The phosphate content of the bone-bed is from the calcium phosphate occurring in the coprolites of carnivores and the higher concentration of phosphate present in estuaries. Additionally, the high concentration of coprolites within the bone-bed resulted from the estuary being a feeding and breeding ground for crocodiles.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences

Year Degree Awarded