Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Nathan Bowling (Committee Member), Corey Miller (Committee Chair), Debra Steele-Johnson (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Supervisor ratings of job performance and objective sales performance were examined to better understand the causes of observed differences in performance ratings between Men and Women and Caucasians and African-Americans. Sex and race did not significantly predict subjective ratings of job performance. Ratee sex and race accounted for less than 2% of the variance in subjective ratings of ratee job performance. However, it was found that Women performed significantly lower than Men, but the difference disappeared when women comprised greater than 30% of the workforce, suggesting a real difference in performance. No tokenism effect was found for Women or racial minorities. Non-significant effects were found for the direct effects of race and sex, as well as sex congruency between rater and ratee.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Psychology

Year Degree Awarded