Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

David Goldstein (Other), Thomas Rooney (Advisor), James Runkle (Committee Member), Joseph F. Thomas, Jr. (Other), Yvonne Vadeboncoeur (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


High densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been implicated in changing forest community structure and composition. Top predators, including gray wolf (Canis lupus), were extirpated from much of their range by the mid 1900s, but have since returned to Northern Wisconsin. To determine whether the re-colonization of wolves could initiate a trophic cascade resulting in the recovery of understory plants from deer browsing, I surveyed four herbaceous species in areas without wolves and areas with 4-6 year old wolf packs and 12-13 year old wolf packs. Plant size and reproduction were greater in areas where wolves had been for 12-13 years compared to areas where wolves were absent. Plant size structure shifted toward larger plants in response to wolves. Lack of a significant response in the 4-6 year vegetation indicates a lag time in the trophic cascade.

Page Count


Department or Program

Department of Biological Sciences

Year Degree Awarded


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

Included in

Biology Commons