Age and Gender Differences in Adolescent and Adult Overarm Throwing
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14 – 17 years old), young adults (18– 25 years old), and adults (35– 55 years old). Method: Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton’s developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15 m to 20 m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) £ 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up posthoc tests. Results: Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between youngadult and adolescent groups. Gender differences ( p , .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed ( p , .001) existed within each age group. Conclusion: Although these data were crosssectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationship
Stodden, D. F.,
Langendorfer, S. J.,
& Goodway, J. D.
(2013). Age and Gender Differences in Adolescent and Adult Overarm Throwing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84 (2), 239-244.