Stream Cube: An Architecture for Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Data Streams

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Real-time surveillance systems, telecommunication systems, and other dynamic environments often generate tremendous (potentially infinite) volume of stream data: the volume is too huge to be scanned multiple times. Much of such data resides at rather low level of abstraction, whereas most analysts are interested in relatively high-level dynamic changes (such as trends and outliers). To discover such high-level characteristics, one may need to perform on-line multi-level, multi-dimensional analytical processing of stream data. In this paper, we propose an architecture, called stream_cube, to facilitate on-line, multi-dimensional, multi-level analysis of stream data.

For fast online multi-dimensional analysis of stream data, three important techniques are proposed for efficient and effective computation of stream cubes. First, a tilted time frame model is proposed as a multi-resolution model to register time-related data: the more recent data are registered at finer resolution, whereas the more distant data are registered at coarser resolution. This design reduces the overall storage of time-related data and adapts nicely to the data analysis tasks commonly encountered in practice. Second, instead of materializing cuboids at all levels, we propose to maintain a small number of critical layers. Flexible analysis can be efficiently performed based on the concept of observation layer and minimal interesting layer. Third, an efficient stream data cubing algorithm is developed which computes only the layers (cuboids) along a popular path and leaves the other cuboids for query-driven, on-line computation. Based on this design methodology, stream data cube can be constructed and maintained incrementally with a reasonable amount of memory, computation cost, and query response time. This is verified by our substantial performance study.



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