To enforce global serializability in a multidatabase environment the multidatabase transaction manager must take into account the indirect (transitive) conflicts between multidatabase transactions caused by local transactions. Such conflicts are difficult to resolve because the behavior or even the existence of local transactions is not known to the multidatabase system. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to incorporate additional data manipulation operations in the subtransactions of each multidatabase transaction. We show that if these operations create direct conflicts between subtransactions at each participating local database system, indirect conflicts can be resolved even if the multidatabase system is not aware of their existence. Based on this approach, we introduce optimistic and conservative multidatabase transaction management methods that require the local database systems to ensure only local serializability. The proposed methods do not violate the autonomy of the local database systems and guarantee global serializability by preventing multidatabase transactions from being serialized in different ways at the participating database systems. Refinements of these methods are also proposed for multidatabase environments where the participating database systems allow schedules that are cascadeless or transactions have analogous execution and serialization orders. In particular, we show that forced local conflicts can be eliminated in rigorous local systems, local cascadelessness simplifies the design of a global scheduler, and that local strictness offers no significant advantages over cascadelessness.
& Sheth, A. P.
(1994). Using Tickets to Enforce the Serializability of Multidatabase Transactions. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 6 (1), 166-180.