Dynamic Adaptive Binning: an Improved Quantification Technique for NMR Spectroscopic Data

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The interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental results for metabolomics studies requires intensive signal processing and multivariate data analysis techniques. A key step in this process is the quantification of spectral features, which is commonly accomplished by dividing an NMR spectrum into several hundred integral regions or bins. Binning attempts to minimize effects from variations in peak positions caused by sample pH, ionic strength, and composition, while reducing the dimensionality for multivariate statistical analyses. Herein we develop an improved novel spectral quantification technique, dynamic adaptive binning. With this technique, bin boundaries are determined by optimizing an objective function using a dynamic programming strategy. The objective function measures the quality of a bin configuration based on the number of peaks per bin. This technique shows a significant improvement over both traditional uniform binning and other adaptive binning techniques. This improvement is quantified via synthetic validation sets by analyzing an algorithm’s ability to create bins that do not contain more than a single peak and that maximize the distance from peak to bin boundary. The validation sets are developed by characterizing the salient distributions in experimental NMR spectroscopic data. Further, dynamic adaptive binning is applied to a 1H NMR-based experiment to monitor rat urinary metabolites to empirically demonstrate improved spectral quantification.



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