Sensor Principles and Methods for Measuring Physical Properties

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Because the scientific method is based on and observation, measurement methodologies and techniques are critical advancement of science and technology. Direct measurement of physical properties, inferences from physical properties, are based on models of behavior. To reduce the possibility of erroneous measurement, a clear understanding of how a sensor translates properties into measured values is vital to advancing materials and process design. The linkage between the accepted models, sensor principles, and methods of measurement enables one to optimally choose a sensor technology. Opportunities for innovation and research are abundant in this field, with the trend toward micro- and nano-sized integrated systems being especially notable.