A concept analysis of synergy for nursing education

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Background and Purpose: Synergy is a term found widely throughout the sciences. There is a need for improved methods and delivery of instruction that supports learners in their pursuit of academic goals and facilitates their transition into the professional role. Critical for students is teamwork training, both as team members and facilitators. Some teams have outcomes greater than their own individual efforts, while others do not. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is synergy. A concept analysis was conducted to define synergy in the context of nursing education and to gain insight on its impact on learning. Using Walker and Avant's (2011) method, definitions, uses, attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents were identified. Methods: Six databases were searched, using the keyword synergy (syntactic variations) and search terms (nursing, education, student, learning, training, collaboration, teamwork, and cooperation) with the parameter of English language (1980-2017). Articles were delimited through duplication removal, title, and abstract review. Thirty articles were selected for review based upon the use of synergy within the context of education. Results: Synergy is demonstrated whengroup outcomes exceed the results of individual efforts. Attributes are mutuality of support, actions, goalswith greater than individual effects, and teaching strategies. Consequences are greater problem-solving, creativity, and goal attainment than are accomplished individually. Implications for Practice: Incorporating synergy into nursing education can promote teamwork and collaboration and facilitate learners to collaborate inter-professionally. Recommendations are to research synergy within nursing education.



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