Development of a Mobile Application using the Delphi Method for Acute Pain Management of En Route Care Patients

Document Type


Publication Date



One of the most significant challenges faced by the U.S. military health system is effective pain management. In resource-denied environments such as En Route Care (ERC), patient care begins with effective acute pain management and is vital to ensure optimal long-term patient outcomes. An electronic, mobile pain management application (app) called the Bee Better app was developed to address the gaps in acute pain management for patients transported throughout the ERC system. The app enables patients to track self-reported acute pain data, provides education and evidenced-based non-pharmacologic interventions during transport. The Delphi method was used as a novel approach to solicit feedback from subject matter experts to systematically enhance the app development process. In its current state, the app tracks patients' reported pain data and information regarding medication intake and provides educational resources about medications and the flight environment. Optimally in the future, the app will deliver real-time therapeutic pain interventions, integrate with the electronic health record and communicate with providers in real-time during care, enabling better patient-centered pain management in the austere ERC environment. Initial usability scores were above industry standards indicating a potential benefit in using a rigorous process for healthcare app development. These mobile apps may enable increased self-management and autonomy in resource-limited environments and optimize outcomes of acute pain management.



Find in your library

Off-Campus WSU Users