Hall-effect measurements have been performed on a series of highly conductive thin films of Ga-doped ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition and annealed in a forming-gas atmosphere (5% H2 in Ar). The mobility as a function of thickness d is analyzed by a simple formula involving only ionized-impurity and boundary scattering and having a single fitting parameter, the acceptor/donor concentration ratio K = NA/ND. For samples with d = 3–100 nm, Kavg = 0.41, giving ND = 4.7×1020 and NA = 1.9×1020 cm−3. Thicker samples require a two-layer formulation due to inhomogeneous annealing.
Look, D. C.,
Leedy, K. D.,
Tomich, D. H.,
& Bayraktaroglu, B.
(2010). Mobility Analysis of Highly Conducting Thin Films: Application to ZnO. Applied Physics Letters, 96 (6), 62102.