We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to determine the nature and the concentrations of the open volume defects in as-grown and electron irradiated (Eel=2 MeV, fluence 6×1017 cm-2) ZnO samples. The Zn vacancies are identified at concentrations of [VZn]≃2×1015 cm-3 in the as-grown material and [VZn]≃2×1016 cm-3 in the irradiated ZnO. These concentrations are in very good agreement with the total acceptor density determined by temperature dependent Hall experiments. Thus, the Zn vacancies are dominant acceptors in both as-grown and irradiated ZnO.
& Look, D. C.
(2003). Evidence of the Zn Vacancy Acting as the Dominant Acceptor in n-Type ZnO. Physical Review Letters, 91 (20), 205502.