Direct Manipulation, Direct Engagement, and Direct Perception: What's Directing What?
Find this in a Library
The term “direct” has been used quite liberally in recent discussions of human performance and human-machine systems. Shneiderman (1983) discusses “direct manipulation”; Hutchins, Hollan and Norman (1986) discuss “direct engagement”; and Gibson (1979) discusses “direct perception”. This paper will compare these different uses of the term direct and will examine the implications for interface design.
Flach, J. M.
(1988). Direct Manipulation, Direct Engagement, and Direct Perception: What's Directing What?. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 32 (19), 1355-1358.