Objective: This research study aims to investigate how food insecurity in the United States has changed between 2016 and 2022 and its correlation with health outcomes by looking at the percent of reporting fair or poor health. Our study also compares healthy food access and food environment index in the US between 2016 and 2022.
Research Methods & Procedures: Paired t-tests compared the levels of food insecurity between 2016 and 2022 and compared food environment index and healthy food access in the United States between 2016 and 2022. A Pearson correlation determined the relationship between food insecurity and the percentage of people reporting fair or poor health in the US in 2022. A stepwise linear regression determined how the food environment index and food insecurity predict the percentage of adults reporting fair or poor health in the US in 2022.
Results: The food environment index significantly increased from 6.96% in 2016 to 7.45% in 2022 (t=34.62, p<.001). A Pearson correlation indicates a significant correlation (r = .794, p <.001) where, as the percentage of food insecurity increases, the percentage of individuals reporting fair or poor health increases. When investigating how the food environment index and food insecurity predict the percentage of adults reporting fair or poor health in the US in 2022, a stepwise linear regression model demonstrated the best fit model was significant (F 2,3103 = 2638.46, p < .001), accounting for 63.0% of the variance in reporting fair or poor health. Food insecurity contributed most to the model (B = .996, t = 42.35, p < .001) with percent food environment index (B = -.329, t = =-4.32, p <.001).
Conclusion(s): The study aimed to identify the impact food accessibility has on health. The food insecurity pandemic is negatively impacting the global population’s health, and unless drastic measures are adopted, numbers will steadily increase.
Kharsa, A. E., & Montes, G. (2023). The Impact of Food Insecurity on Health Outcomes. Wright State University. Dayton, Ohio.