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In 2012, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported about 5.2% of its respondents using tobacco and marijuana, with strong evidence of increasing marijuana use among tobacco users.1 While smoking cigarettes has been shown to cause lung cancer,2 additional studies associate habitual marijuana smoking with abnormal airway tissue histology, impeded airway conductance,3 decreased memory, psychomotor speed, and manual dexterity.4 Cigarette smoking and marijuana use are shown to have similar withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, and depression,2,5 meaning that this example of polysubstance dependence could become a valid public health concern, especially with the legalization of recreational marijuana in some states. In addition, men and women exhibit different habits, psychological, and physiological symptoms for cigarette and marijuana use. For example, women who smoke have a much harder time quitting,6 and men who are depressed are more likely than women who are depressed to use marijuana.7 Thus, understanding gender differences could allow for the possibility of developing gender specific rehabilitation processes when treating those with cigarette and marijuana addiction.8

The objective of this study was to examine the gender differences in marijuana-related problems among those who self-reported daily cigarette smoking and marijuana use. The problems which we investigated are: time spent getting marijuana, time spent recovering from marijuana use, using marijuana even though it caused social problems, reduction in daily activity involvement stemming from marijuana use, experiencing withdrawal symptoms, and using marijuana to stop being sick or to avoid withdrawal problems.

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