Millenniums have offered ideas about how people think, cope, adjust, and survive. Nurturing and maintaining a heart and mind to help others, to be inclusive against incredible odds and societies that act more quickly to exclude needs symbols to aid progress. Cognition, observation, hope, imagination, perception, responsibility, and self-efficacy connect well to the starfish. Students of any age need images, symbols, role models, and practice in finding ways to triumph over life experiences that cause pain and discouragement. Starfish in actual examples, metaphors, and stories aid educators in building thinking, learning, and coping skills for healthy inclusive environments.
A Starfish for Teaching: A Model of Hope for Students and Pedagogy,
Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 3