Publication Date


Document Type


Committee Members

Jennie J. Gallimore (Advisor), Yan Liu (Committee Member), Michael E. Miller (Committee Member), Pratik J. Parikh (Committee Member), Pamela P. Tsang (Committee Member)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


While aircraft pilots must attain awareness of both pertinent spatial and temporal navigation information in the Next Generation Air Transportation System, current flight decks present spatial and temporal information separately. This research explored display design to enhance situation awareness (SA) while conducting navigation with spatial and temporal constraints (space-time navigation). For Experiment 1, static maps were developed for space-time navigation including scheduled/estimated time of arrival for passengers at bus stops on public bus routes. The maps varied time status representation and format of indicated time into four conditions. To examine SA, the test program provided 23 non-pilot participants with the maps and different questions asking about the spatial and/or temporal statuses. Participants answered questions faster and more accurately when the time formats of question and map were compatible. Also, time length format was as effective as exact time format, and the text + graphics maps showed a benefit. For Experiment 2, flight deck displays composed of a navigation display (ND) and a control display unit (CDU) were developed varying display proximity between space and time information. Compared with the traditional standard pilot displays, display proximity manipulation included adding required/estimated time of arrival text on the ND, adding temporal conformance graphic bars on the CDU, and integrating all temporal texts and conformance graphics on the ND. Fifteen pilots participated in queries about the spatial and/or temporal status to evaluate their SA during autopilot simulation in four display conditions. The increased display proximity conditions were as good or better with respect to pilot speed and accuracy and subjectively were perceived less difficult to answer compared with the traditional condition. In Experiment 3, 14 pilots flew a simulated flight, and their compliance of spatial and temporal requirements at scheduled waypoints was measured in the four display proximity conditions. Pilots' mental workload was subjectively perceived lower with novel display conditions. The transportation operators may enhance their SA with increased space-time display proximity based displays.

Page Count


Department or Program

Ph.D. in Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

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