We present a simple a criterion, based on deep-level transient spectroscopy peak heights S(Vr) at two or more values of reverse bias Vr, to unequivocally determine whether or not a particular semiconductor trap is of bulk or near-surface nature. Moreover, we present an expression for S(Vr) with fitting parameters ϕB, the Schottky barrier height; δ, the trap penetration depth; and NT, the trap density. Application of the method to a thick, high-quality, epitaxial GaN layer, reveals two common traps which penetrate only 2700±300 Å into the layer.
Look, D. C.,
& Fang, Z.
(2001). Characterization of Near-Surface Traps in Semiconductors: GaN. Applied Physics Letters, 79 (1), 84-86.